Chhath Parba


Chhath Parba is called as Dala Chhath.

Chhath Parba is a festival celebrated by natives of Mithila Region from India and Nepali. The word Chhath means ‘sixth’ in Maithili and Bhojpuri language. The festival is celebrated in the sixth day of Kartik month from Nepali Bikram Sambat calendar. Chhath word is derived from Sanskrit Language. It is a festival after Navratri.


Chhath is a festival dedicate to Sun. Sun is call as Surya in Sanskrit Language. This festival is celebrate to thanks Lord Surya for giving sustainable life in the Earth. Sun is the source of power and lord of life-force. Sun is worshiped to pray for continuous blessings to the Earth. That every mankind and living kind can sustain in Earth. Hindu people believe that sun helps to cure many diseases and illness. The ray of sun provides stability and prosperity. People worship sun for long prosperity of their family members, friends and beloved ones.

Date of Festival

Chhath is a festival after Navratri. It is a period between fifteen days of new moon and full moon day on the month of Kartik. It is celebrate in Chaitra. Chhath puja is perform in Sixth day of Kartik Shukla.  Typically it falls in October/November according to the Gregorian English Calendar.

The festival is celebrate four days. Chhath puja is on 16th of Kartik according to the Nepali Bikram Sambat Calendar. The four day is on 31st October to 3rd November according to the Gregorian English Calendar. It is celebrate in summer (march/april) on Chaitra Shashthi. It falls some daysafter Holi.

Rituals and Tradition

The festival is celebrate for four days. They have a ritual that family who celebrate Chhath Parba should continue for their upcoming generation. Family who haven’t perform Chhath before can’t celebrate from the middle. People whose Family member died before festival can’t continue celebrating festival. Family who got new member recently also can’t celebrate the festival. It can’t be stop and if stop can’t be resume again.

First Day (Naha Kha)

The word Naha means ‘Bath’ and Kha means ‘eat’. The house and surrounding are fully clean in this day. It is the first day of festival. People visit near river from their residence. They take dip on the holy river and bring holy water in home to prepare some offerings. Family member prepare lunch of Rice, and Dal mixed with pumpkin with pure ghee. They exclude onion and garlic in their foods for four days. They avoid alcohol and meat items. People become vegetarian in this festival. People have meal one time in this day.

Second Day (Lohanda/Kharna)

This is a second day of festival and day before Panchami day. In this day, people end fasting in evening after the sunset. They worship Earth on this day. The day is call as Kharna because people cook ‘kheer’ on this day. Kheer is prepare with sweetened milk and rice. They offer Bananas and Puris as Prasad. It is a tradition to observe fasting for next 36 hours. In these 36 hours they even do not drink one drop of water.

Third Day (Chhath)

People prepares Prasad whole day in their home. This day is third day of festival. In evening, whole family accompanies to river bank near their residence. The process for it is call Argha. Rani Pokhari is open in this day in Kathmandu for Argha. They worship setting sun on this day. This day is very important part of Chhath Parba. In evening, whole family gathers and performs programmes and cultural dance and sings folk songs. They sings song in Maithili, Magadhi and Bhojpuri which are the major languages speak in Terai region.

After sunset, Kosi process is start. This process is held after sun set. The lights on lake lit which was offer in Argha foe setting sun. The five sugarcane sticks are keep below lamps. The five sugarcane sticks denotes human body of Pancha Tatwa Ayurveda (Earth, water, fire, air and sky). It is a symbolic ritual.

Fourth Day (Parana)

Parana means Bihaniya Argha which means morning offering. This is final day of Chhath Parba. People along with family members go river nearby their residence before sunrise. They offer Argha to rising sun and break their fast. Prasad is distribute among family and relatives.

Story behind Chhath Parba

Chhath pooja can be trace back to Mahabharat period. Draupadi, wife of 5 pandavs had a power to cure any type of disease include (leprosy). The reason for her power was sun. She used to worship Lord Sun. She believed sun has unlimited power to cure several diseases.  The holy and blesses of Surya made Draupadi most powerful woman in the world to cure several diseases.

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